To use smart cards, there is the need for a special smart card reader. The reader itself should be capable of reading PIV-certificate-based smart cards. These smart cards must contain a secret value or data that is used to generate the challenge required for authentication.
The following security keys are available for smart card authentication:
The well-known, open source smart card solution
The well-known, proprietary smart card solution
The HPS solution
Smart card reader does not have to be a hardware-based solution, but it should be capable of storing the secret data needed for authentication. In my scheme, the smart card reader is the Java application. There is no need for an expensive hardware solution. The hardware-based solution is as vulnerable as the software-based one.
The Java application can be installed on a smart card and it will be used to hold the needed values to generate challenges during authentication. If the storage is encrypted using a strong password, data confidentiality is assured. If the storage is not protected at all, data confidentiality is not guaranteed.
Log in authentication does not require possession of all the factors. For example, a user may have a telephone (e.g., a mobile phone) but may not have a SIM card. However, once a user has logged in through the telephone, the user can be authenticated via the telephone’s OTP app.
Typically, when a consumer has more than one possession factor, each factor must be entered at the time of login. For example, to log in to a website that allows you to choose among multiple delivery methods, you may have to enter your delivery method choices, one by one. The website requires you to have a card, a PIN, a phone number, or a key fob to log in.
Securing the user’s possession factor is essential to mobile biometric authentication systems since an attacker could steal or copy the user’s smartphone, token, key fob or SIM card in order to gain access to the authentication system. This is a particular problem for mobile biometric authentication, which is often coupled with mobile applications. Since these applications often have code stored on the device, an attacker could copy the application and use the code to authenticate as the user.
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